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A compiler is a software program that transforms high-level source code that is written by a developer in a high-level programming language into a low level object code (binary code) in machine language, which can be understood by the processor. The process of converting high-level programming into machine language is known as compilation.
The processor executes object code, which indicates when binary high and low signals are required in the arithmetic logic unit of the processor.
A compiler that converts machine language into high-level natural language is called a decompiler. Compilers that produce the object code meant to run on a system are called cross-compilers. Finally, a compiler that converts one programming language into another is called a language translator.
A compiler executes four major steps: