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Shoulder surfing refers to the act of obtaining personal or private information through direct observation. Shoulder surfing involves looking over a person's shoulder to gather pertinent information while the victim is oblivious. This is especially effective in crowded places where a person uses a computer, smartphone or ATM. If shoulder surfing occurs when there are very few people, the act becomes suspicious very quickly. Binoculars, video cameras and vision-enhancing devices also are used, depending on location and situation.