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A configuration management database (CMDB) is a type of database that consists of information related to all information system components in an organization and the relationship between them.
It was initially conceived and used in Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) framework to identify and track the information system components in an IT infrastructure/environment.
A CMDB contains the configuration items (CI) or information system components within an enterprise IT infrastructure. It helps identify the different components of an information system and their configuration and stores this data in the form of metadata.
The CI stored by a CMDB can be any IT component from hardware, software, network and/or IS policies and documentations. Typically, a CMDB automatically detects all components/CIs within an IT infrastructure/environment and keeps track of changes as they occur. CMDB provides data about these components in an organized way, making it easier for an organization to review and evaluate the data.