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Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) is an interface standard for accessing data and communicating with database systems, regardless of the operating system (OS), database system (DS) or programming language. This is accomplished by using ODBC drivers that serve as a bridge between applications and database systems.
In 1992, a group of manufacturers introduced the ODBC model as a communications solution for the large number of OSs, DSs and applications written in different programming languages. For example, an application written in C to access an Oracle database in UNIX had to be rewritten if the application changed to Windows, or if the database platform was moved to Sybase. These manufacturers recognized the need for an intermediate translation mechanism and created a set of protocols and application programming interfaces (APIs), which was the first ODBC model.
The ODBC model contains the following three major components:
The driver’s function, which is very similar to a human translator, is to bridge the gap between parties that would not otherwise understand each other.