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An antenna array is group of antennas connected and arranged in a regular structure to form a single antenna that is able to produce radiation patterns not produced by individual antennas.
Antenna arrays are groups of isotropic radiators of electromagnetic frequency and energy. They provide a solution to the problems caused by single antennas. For instance, the dipole antenna allows better control of direction than an isotropic antenna, but as length the of the dipole increases, control direction may decrease. More control and flexibility can be easily regained for beam direction with a multiple radiator arrangement.
There are two basic types of antenna arrays:
When arrays are arranged in straight lines, it is called a linear array, while antennas arranged in parallel lines on one plane have plane arrays in two dimensions. Numerous planes in a group of antennas results in a three dimensional array. The same orientation results in reinforcement of electric field intensity and ensures polarization in the same direction.