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A payload refers to the component of a computer virus that executes a malicious activity. Apart from the speed in which a virus spreads, the threat level of a virus is calculated by the damages it causes. Viruses with more powerful payloads tend to be more harmful.
Although not all viruses carry a payload, a few payloads are considered extremely dangerous. Some of the examples of payloads are data destruction, offensive messages and the delivery of spam emails through the infected user's account.
A payload is also known as a destructive payload.
Some viruses just copy themselves from one computer to other. Other viruses may steal data or files, permit eavesdropping or unauthorized access, destroy data and cause other consequences. It is also possible for a virus to carry multiple payloads.
Present-day malware is less likely to incorporate a payload that causes damage to system files; instead, they enable backdoor access to a user's computer and the theft of sensitive information.
Some of the ways to execute a payload include: