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A file system is a process that manages how and where data on a storage disk, typically a hard disk drive (HDD), is stored, accessed and managed. It is a logical disk component that manages a disk's internal operations as it relates to a computer and is abstract to a human user.
Regardless of type and usage, a disk contains a file system and information about where disk data is stored and how it may be accessed by a user or application. A file system typically manages operations, such as storage management, file naming, directories/folders, metadata, access rules and privileges.
Commonly used file systems include File Allocation Table 32 (FAT 32), New Technology File System (NTFS) and Hierarchical File System (HFS).