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A circuit board is a physical piece of technology that allows for the assembly of electrical or data circuits on a horizontal layer of material. Advances in circuit boards have led to new engineering and manufacturing methods for these types of devices.
Prior to the emergence of the printed circuit board (PCB), engineers often used point-to-point construction to create these hardware pieces. However, beginning in the early 1900s, printed circuit boards became the norm. In printed circuit board design, manufacturers use a variety of methods, including milling, to manipulate copper and other material layers to create sophisticated circuits on a circuit board. Chemical etching and manipulating material layers with precise laser technologies are other ways in which modern circuit boards are designed.