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Cybernetics is an approach to studying regulatory systems, their structures, constraints, possibilities and controls. In simple terms, cybernetics is the study of controls of any system by using technology. But the essence of this approach is to understand the functions and processes of systems capable of receiving, storing and processing information and then using it for its own control.
Cybernetics is a broad field, which encompasses the study of systems which are mechanical, biological, social, physical or cognitive in nature. Cybernetics is applicable to systems which have closed signaling loops. In this type of closed signaling system, action generated within the system triggers changes in the system environment, and this change also triggers some type of system change. Therefore, it is a closed loop where the action and its reaction take place within the same system environment.
Cybernetics has influenced multiple fields of study which include system theory, philosophy, game theory, perceptual control, architecture, artificial intelligence and many more. However, the basic purpose remains the same, which is the study of system controls for all underlying mechanisms.