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Echo cancellation is a method used in telephony and telecommunication to improve voice quality by preventing echos from being captured or created, or possibly removing it in post-processing. The aim is filter the echo that is either produced by acoustic means or a hybrid echo produced by line echo, electrical reflections or impedance mismatch.
Echo cancellation aims to remove the echo that is heard when talking on the phone, either via landline or digital communication such as VoIP. The echo is one's own voice being transmitted back from the other end due to various reasons. Echo can be very disruptive to a conversation; it can impair call quality and even increase used bandwidth. This is because more data gets transmitted because of additional sound information that has to be processed, and even when the transmission is supposed to be one way because only one person is talking and transmitting, echo from the other end causes the listener to also transmit the echo and additional static. A process called “silence suppression” is used to prevent this.
Types of echo and how they are cancelled: