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Gigascale Integration (GSI) is a designation in microprocessor designs where integrated circuits (IC) contain more than one billion transistor gates. It refers to very dense proliferation of transistors on IC systems.
In a practical sense, GSI is a benchmark measurement for microprocessors; it shows how far processor design has come with modern strategies like multi-core design, etc.
It is part of an evolving hardware advancement that has powered tech innovation over the last few years. New microprocessor designs use a process known as photolithography to embed large amounts of circuitry on semiconductor substrates. This can facilitate GSI and related goals.
There are different opinions on the future of microprocessor advancement, but the use of terms like gigascale integration indicates there is still room for advancement in putting even more logical design into smaller and smaller chips.