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A stack overflow is a runtime error that happens when a program runs out of memory in the call stack. The stack overflow generally signals a problem in resource provisioning and has to be fixed in order to allow the program to run and use memory properly.
It is important to point out that a stack overflow is a logical runtime error and not a syntax error. Syntax errors result when the computer cannot read a section of code correctly, and these errors are caught by the compiler or at other key points before production. A stack overflow, on the other hand, happens “in the mix” and can be hard to figure out.
Stack overflows can be caused by not allocating enough memory to a particular program. They can also be caused by a codebase where the coder or developer did not remember memory limits and programmed the executable to exceed them. Many programmers consider recursive functions as a major culprit: With recursion, the iterative process eats up all of the available memory and then triggers a stack overflow.