How to Avoid Social Engineering Attacks That Prey on Employee Psychology

Social engineering has emerged as a pervasive cybersecurity threat, utilizing manipulative techniques to exploit human behavior for illicit gain.

According to Verizon’s data breach investigations report for 2023, an alarming 74% of breaches involved human error. Social engineering attacks, mistakes, and misuse were the principal causes. Surprisingly, 50% of these attacks were pretexting incidents, almost double compared to the previous year.

Understanding the psychology of social engineering and its manipulative tactics is crucial for organizations to defend against such attacks. While technology plays a vital role in defense, educating the workforce on safeguarding against social engineering is equally essential.

Companies can prevent social engineering in the workplace and enhance their security posture by raising awareness of the tactics and vulnerabilities exploited by social engineers. Proactive measures include implementing security awareness training programs and encouraging a culture of vigilance among employees.

So, what is the best countermeasure against social engineering? Organizations can effectively mitigate the threats posed by social engineering attacks by combining technology solutions, like malware protection tools and antivirus services, and informing their employees.

Key Takeaways

  • Education and Awareness: Regularly train your employees about the risks and signs of social engineering and phishing attacks. This includes understanding the tactics used, such as phishing, baiting, pretexting, and tailgating.
  • Verify Identities: Always verify the identity of the person or entity you’re dealing with, especially if they ask for sensitive information. To verify identities, you can use various methods, such as checking email addresses, verifying phone numbers, or confirming identities in person.
  • Implement Strong Security Policies: Establish clear guidelines for handling sensitive information and regularly update them. This includes using strong, unique passwords, multi-factor authentication, and regularly updating software.
  • Use Technology to Your Advantage: Use security tools and software to detect and prevent social engineering attacks. This includes spam filters, next-generation web application firewalls, and continuous system monitoring.
  • Encourage Reporting and Create a Culture of Vigilance: Encourage employees to report any suspicious activities or potential security incidents. This can help in early detection and prevention of social engineering attacks. Creating a culture of vigilance where security is everyone’s responsibility can enhance your organization’s overall security posture.

Social Engineering Techniques

Persuasion and deception form the foundation of social engineering.


Attackers employ these techniques to establish a deceptive trust, increasing the chances of victims succumbing to their demands. By masquerading as authority figures, they capitalize on individuals’ inclination to obey influential individuals.

Examples of these attacks include phishing, whereby attackers send deceptive emails pretending to be from legitimate organizations, enticing recipients to click on malicious links or provide sensitive information like passwords or credit card details.

Another example is when attackers create a fabricated scenario to manipulate individuals into divulging confidential information or performing actions that compromise security.

For instance, pretending to be from IT support to extract login credentials under the guise of troubleshooting.

How to Avoid the Top Social Engineering Attacks

There are different types of social engineering attacks, with most of them unbelievably subtle, manipulating individuals into divulging confidential information or performing actions compromising security.

The many different types of attacks require adequate countermeasures against social engineering.


Phishing is a cyber-attack where attackers use deceptive emails, messages, or websites to trick individuals into revealing sensitive information such as passwords, credit card numbers, or personal details.

These attacks often come from a trustworthy source, like a bank or a colleague, to increase the likelihood of success.

A targeted variation is spear phishing, whereby the attacker knows more about the victim.

Whaling is another type of spear phishing targeting high-profile employees, such as the CEO or CFO.

Protection Measures:

Educate your workforce on recognizing suspicious emails or messages to prevent phishing attacks. Encourage them to verify the sender’s email address, check for spelling errors or unusual requests, and avoid clicking on links or downloading attachments from unknown sources.


Baiting attacks exploit human curiosity or greed to deceive victims into revealing sensitive information or infecting their systems.

For instance, if you’ve ever watched Mr Robot, you will know that hackers may leave infected USB drives in public spaces to entice individuals into plugging them in.

Protection Measures:

To mitigate risks, avoid accessing unattended USB devices and promptly report such incidents to your security team. Stay vigilant and prioritize cybersecurity awareness to safeguard personal and organizational data.


In a pretexting attack, an attacker manipulates an employee into revealing sensitive data through a fabricated scenario. Research on the target precedes the attack to build credibility.

Protection Measures:

To counter this, always verify identities, refrain from disclosing personal information, and promptly report such incidents to the IT team for investigation.

Watering Hole

In a watering hole attack, attackers infect or create websites to target specific user groups, such as company employees, to gain access to their computers or workplace networks.

Protection Measures:

Stay safe by accessing only HTTPS websites, updating software regularly, and using malware-detection tools. Protect yourself from threats and keep your data secure with these proactive measures.

Quid Pro Quo

Prevent quid pro quo attacks by verifying the IT technician’s identity, questioning methods, and using anti-malware software. Attackers exploit reciprocity, offering benefits for sensitive information.

For instance, a fake IT expert may request device login credentials to enhance its performance.

Protection Measures:

Stay vigilant to safeguard against data breaches; keep up to date with your organization’s security policies and data loss prevention (DLP) advice.


Scareware, a deceptive form of malware, tricks users with fake security alerts. It prompts visits to harmful sites or promotes useless antivirus products.

Protection Measures:

Protect yourself using an ad-blocker, reliable antivirus software, and avoid pop-up clicks. Stay vigilant to safeguard your online security. Notify your security team immediately.

Tailgating and Piggybacking

Tailgating and piggybacking are common methods attackers use to gain unauthorized access to secure areas. This involves following closely behind an authorized person to slip through a door or gate.

Attackers might pretend to be employees needing assistance or delivery personnel or even hold items like coffee cups to appear harmless.

Protection Measures:

Vigilance and strict adherence to security protocols are crucial in preventing such breaches. Educating employees on these tactics and regularly reinforcing security awareness can significantly mitigate the risk of unauthorized access incidents. Refusing to let someone in can be awkward, but achieved through politeness.


Protect yourself from vishing, a form of voice phishing, by avoiding sharing your phone number in response to unsolicited emails or social media requests.

Remember that legitimate colleagues never ask you to transfer funds or provide sensitive information over the phone.

Protection Measures:

Stay vigilant and never disclose personal details to unknown callers. By staying cautious and verifying the identity of anyone requesting information over the phone, you can safeguard yourself against potential Vishing attacks. Stay informed and stay safe.


Smishing, a blend of “SMS” and “phishing,” is a social engineering attack where cybercriminals use text messages to deceive individuals into divulging sensitive information or clicking on malicious links.

Protection Measures:

Educate your workforce to avoid unexpected messages requesting personal or financial information to prevent smishing attacks. Advise them to verify the sender’s authenticity before responding or clicking on any links. Implementing security awareness training and encouraging employees to report suspicious messages can help mitigate the risks associated with smishing attacks.

Shoulder Surfing

Shoulder surfing isn’t just someone peeking over your shoulder—it can happen remotely, using hidden cameras or binoculars. This tactic involves unauthorized individuals spying to steal your sensitive data and passwords.

Protection Measures:

Protect yourself by being aware of your surroundings, shielding your screen, and using privacy filters. Stay vigilant against this threat both in public and private spaces to safeguard your information from prying eyes. In addition, make sure to use strong, single sign-on passwords, biometrics, and 2-factor authentication.

Dumpster Diving

Dumpster diving is where attackers search through your company’s trash for confidential information; it’s a common threat.

Protection Measures:

Protect your business by following officially documented security processes to destroy sensitive data.

Diversion Theft

This involves manipulating a business’s supply chain to steal goods.

Protection Measures:

To defend against it, verify all financial transactions, maintain strict inventory controls, and regularly audit your supply chain processes.

Honey Trap

This is a form of social engineering where an attacker creates a fake identity to gain the victim’s trust and access sensitive information.

Protection Measures:

To defend against it, always verify identities, be wary of unsolicited contacts, and never share sensitive information with unknown individuals.


Deepfakes are fake videos, audio recordings, or live streams created using artificial intelligence technology. They can make it look like someone is saying or doing something they never did. Detecting deepfakes is essential to prevent the spread of misinformation and potential cyber threats.

For example, In 2020, a deep fake deceived a Japanese company’s Hong Kong branch manager. He authorized $35 million in transfers, thinking he was following instructions from his director, demonstrating the potential effectiveness of such social engineering crimes.

Protection Measures:

Look for clues like shadows, blinking eyes, and unnatural wrinkles in videos. Listen to audio quality, especially subtle pronunciation differences like f, s, v, and z. By staying alert and informed, we can better protect ourselves against the risks posed by deepfake technology.

How to Protect from Social Engineering Attacks: 10 Tips to Follow

To defend your organization, you must remain skeptical of unsolicited communications and verify the sender’s identity before responding.

This is part of fostering a security culture within your organization, which involves promoting open communication about security risks and encouraging a general attitude of vigilance.

Additionally, implementing strong security policies, such as clear guidelines for handling sensitive information and regular training in security best practices for all employees, is essential.

Lastly, leveraging technology through security tools and software can help detect and prevent social engineering attacks, further strengthening your overall security posture.

10 Best Ways to Protect from Social Engineering Attacks

Many examples of social engineering attacks could’ve been prevented by implementing multiple security layers to help thwart attacks exploiting human vulnerabilities, not just technical flaws.

How to Prevent Social Engineering in the Workplace

Social engineering heavily exploits emotions, cognitive biases, and herd mentality.

Fear, urgency, and sympathy are often targeted to cloud judgment and encourage hasty actions. For instance, an attacker might impersonate a bank representative to trigger anxiety and obtain sensitive information.

Cognitive biases, like the availability heuristic, can lead to irrational decisions, causing victims to focus on immediate threats and overlook long-term risks. Social proof and herd mentality, where individuals look to others for behavior guidance, can be exploited by creating a false consensus, leading victims to believe others have already taken the desired action.

Remaining vigilant about deceptive behaviors and noticing when something is too good to be true or if you have a gut feeling that something just doesn’t feel right will aid you in preventing social engineering attacks.

Ronald Reagan’s famous quote, “Trust, but verify,” is a wise reminder that we should not blindly rely on someone’s word alone.

The Bottom Line

Social engineering exploits deeply rooted human vulnerabilities through sophisticated manipulative strategies.

By understanding the psychological factors attributing to its success, individuals and organizations can protect themselves against these invasive cybersecurity assaults.

Strengthening security policies, nurturing a culture of vigilance, and enhancing technology defenses are essential weapons in the fight against social engineering attacks.


What makes social engineering such an effective technique for hackers?

What is the best way to protect against social engineering?

How to prevent social engineering and phishing attacks?


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John Meah
Cybersecurity Expert

John is a skilled freelance writer who combines his writing talent with his cybersecurity expertise. He holds an equivalent level 7 master's degree in cybersecurity and a number of prestigious industry certifications, such as PCIP, CISSP, MCIIS, and CCSK. He has spent over two decades working in IT and information security within the finance and logistics business sectors. This experience has given John a profound understanding of cybersecurity practices, making his tech coverage on Techopedia particularly insightful and valuable. He has honed his writing skills through courses from renowned institutions like the Guardian and Writers Bureau UK.