Humanoid Robots: Shaping the Future of AI and Work

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Humanoid robots represent the pinnacle of artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning, and robotic engineering. They embody human-like features, movements, and behaviors, making them more relatable and efficient in performing a variety of tasks.

These robots are adept at a myriad of activities, ranging from household chores like cooking and cleaning to engaging in intellectual pursuits such as playing chess.

Their capabilities are underpinned by the latest technological advancements, including generative AI, 5G connectivity, and the Internet of Things (IoT), making them more accessible and user-friendly.

The global humanoid robot market, valued at $307.6 million in 2021, is projected to grow to $609.5 million by 2031, with a CAGR of 7.7% from 2022 to 2031.

Key Takeaways

  • Integrating the latest in AI, machine learning, and robotics, humanoid robots are swiftly moving from experimental projects to practical applications.
  • Leading companies like Tesla, Sanctuary AI, and Agility Robotics are at the forefront of this revolution, with innovations like the Digit robot aiming to enhance productivity in the logistics and warehouse sector.
  • Robotic implementation is beginning across manufacturing, from Amazon trials to protein engineering.

Advancements and Key Players

Companies like Tesla, Sanctuary AI, Agility Robotics, and Figure lead the charge in this new era. Sanctuary AI, with substantial funding, has been piloting humanoid robots in real-world scenarios, like performing tasks at a Canadian Tire-owned store.

Agility Robotics developed the humanoid robot Digit (pictured above) and is currently gearing up for mass production, targeting the logistics industry as its primary market.


Digit — which is 5’9″ tall, weighs 140 pounds, and can lift up to 35 pounds — is designed to work in human spaces and can be easily adapted to various warehouse tasks through software updates.

Digit aims to transform repetitive and physically demanding jobs in logistics. It excels in process-automated tasks like moving empty totes and is designed to work alongside humans, enhancing productivity.

Digit on trial at a warehouse.
Digit on trial at a warehouse. Source: Digit

Jonathan Hurst, co-founder and chief robot officer at Agility Robotics, emphasizes a distinctive approach to robotics, said:

‘The intention is not to start from the beginning and say, ‘Hey, we’re trying to make a robot look like a person’.


“We’re trying to make robots that can operate in human spaces.”

Amazon is one of the first companies to test Digit in a real-world setting, where it will be trialed at Amazon’s robotics research and development facility just south of Seattle.

Emily Vetterick, Amazon Director of Engineering, said: “Digit’s size and shape are well-suited for buildings that are designed for humans, and we believe that there is a big opportunity to scale a mobile manipulator solution.”

Norwegian company 1X, backed by OpenAI and recently by EQT Ventures, has made significant strides in this arena. After initially raising $23.5 million last year, 1X has increased its funding to $125 million, thanks to a substantial $100 million Series B round.

1X’s central project is NEO, a humanoid robot designed to address global labor shortages. NEO shares similarities in appearance and purpose with its competitors, underscoring the industry’s belief that humanoid robots are ideally suited to environments specifically designed for humans.

The Neo 1X
The Neo 1X humanoid robot. Source: 1x

Technological Innovations

The humanoid robots of today are a far cry from their predecessors. They are now capable of complex tasks, a testament to the advancements in AI and robotics. The ALOHA project, an open-source robot developed by Stanford PhDs, is a prime example. It can perform household chores and cooking, showcasing the diverse potential of these robots.

The University of Wisconsin-Madison’s biochemistry department has developed an AI-based robotic platform called Self-driving Autonomous Machines for Protein Landscape Exploration (SAMPLE).

This platform, led by Assistant Professor Philip Romero, is revolutionizing protein engineering by significantly reducing the time required to engineer new proteins. Traditionally, this process can take human scientists six to twelve months, but SAMPLE achieves this in just a few weeks.

SAMPLE operates autonomously, utilizing AI to understand protein sequence and function relationships. It designs new proteins, guides robotic instruments to assemble them, and then tests their effectiveness.

Looking ahead, the focus is not just on developing these robots but also on increasing AI training compute power. Tesla’s CEO, Elon Musk, is also venturing into humanoid robots with a project named Optimus.

This initiative is being developed through Tesla’s robotics division, showcasing its diverse technological interests extending beyond its well-known electric car manufacturing.

The Bottom Line

The commercial deployment of humanoid robots like Optimus and Digit is just the beginning. Several other companies are also venturing into this space, each with unique prototypes and visions.

While some fear job displacement and the ethical implications of advanced AI, others see these robots as a step towards greater efficiency and innovation in various sectors. The industry is experiencing a divide between fully autonomous AI and teleoperation, where humans control robots remotely.

The industry faces challenges in software development, manufacturing, and creating a robust service infrastructure to support these advanced machines. However, the potential and interest in humanoid robots continue to grow, indicating a transformative phase in robotics and automation.

2024 looks to be a turning point for humanoid robots as we witness their transition from experimental projects to real-world applications. With significant investments and technological advancements, the future of humanoid robots is not just a possibility but a rapidly approaching reality.


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Aayush Mittal
AI & ML Software Engineer
Aayush Mittal
AI & ML Software Engineer

Aayush Mittal is a software engineer with an expertise in AI and Machine Learning. Over the last five years, he has delved deeply into diverse software engineering projects, with a special focus on Natural Language Processing. Aayush combines his engineering skills with a passion for writing to demystify the complex world of technology through his insightful and informative content.