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A random number is a number generated using a large set of numbers and a mathematical algorithm which gives equal probability to all numbers occurring in the specified distribution. Random numbers are most commonly produced with the help of a random number generator. Random numbers have important applications, especially in cryptography where they act as ingredients in encryption keys.
One of the most important prerequisites of a random number is to be independent, as this helps in establishing no correlations between successive numbers. It must be ensured that the frequency of the occurrence of these random numbers should be approximately be the same. As a result, theoretically, it is not easy to generate a long random number.
Random numbers can be generated with the help of software and hardware. Computer-generated random numbers are at times called pseudorandom numbers. There are many methods such as the linear congruence method for generating pseudorandom numbers. Random numbers produced by hardware or physical phenomenon are considered truly random generated numbers.
Random numbers have wide uses in applications such as cryptography, statistical sampling, completely randomized design, computer simulation and any areas where unpredictable random numbers are desirable.