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What is a Double-Spending Attack?

A double-spending attack is a critical flaw that allows the same unit of a cryptocurrency to be spent more than once, leading to potential inflation, theft, and the erosion of trust in the digital monetary system.


If users or merchants can’t trust that the tokens they’re receiving haven’t been spent elsewhere, the very foundation of a decentralized digital currency crumbles.

How Does a Double-Spending Attack Work?

Double-spending attacks exploit the digital nature of cryptocurrencies – since these are just made of data, what’s stopping one from copying and rebroadcasting a transaction?

The crux lies in the consensus mechanisms of blockchains.

Attackers initiate a double-spend attack by sending a transaction to a recipient while concurrently creating another transaction, spending the same coins but directing them to another address they control.

They then race to propagate their fraudulent transaction faster than the legitimate one, hoping the network will validate their deceitful transfer.

Types of Double-Spend Attacks

  • Finney Attack: An attacker mines a block with a fraudulent transaction and then releases it after getting the product/service.
  • Race Attack: An attacker sends conflicting transactions in rapid succession to take advantage of network lag.
  • Vector76 Attack: An attacker targets a specific protocol vulnerability.
  • 51% Attack: An attacker executes the 51% Attack, wherein they gain control of the majority of the network’s hash rate, allowing them to alter transaction history and double-spend coins

History of Double-Spending Attacks

Double-spending is as old as the idea of cryptocurrency itself, the problem’s complexity is reflected in the famous Byzantine Generals Problem, an analogy illustrating the need for consensus in a distributed, untrusting network.

The Byzantine Generals Problem is a dilemma in decentralized systems where participants must achieve consensus on a strategy, despite having some actors who might act maliciously or unreliably, highlighting the fundamental challenges faced by cryptocurrencies in achieving network-wide agreement.

While many believe that all double-spending attack attempts have been thwarted, this is untrue. Below are some notable incidents that have caused ripples in the crypto community:

  • Bitcoin Gold 51% Attack (2018): A malefactor gained control over a majority of the network’s hash rate, allowing them to double-spend Bitcoin Gold worth over $18 million.
  • Verge (XVG) Attack (2018): Several attacks on Verge in 2018 resulted from vulnerabilities in its codebase, causing significant financial losses.
  • Ethereum Classic Attack (2019): A 51% attack led to the double-spending of ethereum classic (ETC) tokens worth approximately $1.1 million. This incident led to exchanges like Coinbase temporarily halting ETC transactions.

How to Prevent Double-Spending Attacks

Blockchain’s primary defense against double-spending is its decentralized, transparent ledger system coupled with cryptographic security.

All transactions are open for verification by the community. Once verified by miners, they become irreversible and tamper-proof.

However, additional measures can further secure the network:

  • Wait for Confirmations: Multiple confirmations for a transaction can significantly reduce the risk.
  • Boost Network Hashrate: A network with a high combined computational power is less likely to fall victim to a 51% attack.
  • Adopt Advanced Consensus Mechanisms: proof-of-stake (PoS) or delegated proof-of-stake (DPoS) can offer enhanced security against these attacks.
  • Implement Minimum Confirmation Policies: This can mitigate the risks associated with zero-confirmation transactions.

The Bottom Line

Double-spending is a potent threat to the integrity of any digital currency. Addressing it has been central to the adoption and trustworthiness of cryptocurrencies.

While blockchain technology, with its decentralized consensus and cryptographic verifications, has largely neutralized this concern, vulnerabilities remain.

As crypto technology evolves, so too do the threats, requiring constant vigilance and innovation from the community.

As with all financial systems, trust is paramount, making understanding and countering double-spending attacks a top priority.


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Sam Cooling
Crypto & Blockchain Writer
Sam Cooling
Crypto & Blockchain Writer

Sam Cooling is a crypto, financial, and business journalist based in London. Along with Techopedia, his work has been published in Yahoo Finance, Coin Rivet, and other leading publications in the financial space. His interest in cryptocurrency is driven by a passion for leveraging decentralized blockchain technologies to empower marginalized communities worldwide. This includes enhancing financial transparency, providing banking services to the unbanked, and improving agricultural supply chains. Sam has a Master’s Degree in Development Management from the London School of Economics and has worked as a Junior Research Fellow for the UK Defence Academy.