Why We Need Explainable AI in the Cyber Threat Landscape


Embracing transparency and explainability is vital in the face of evolving cyber threats. Explainable AI (XAI) in cybersecurity provides understandable insights into decision-making, enhancing trust and response strategies. Transparency promotes confidence and compliance with data protection regulations.

In the modern technology-driven era, we are confronted with an ever-escalating challenge originating from cyber threats. These threats are initiated by individuals with malicious intent, cybercriminal organizations, and even state-sponsored entities. The attackers persistently attempt to devise new techniques to breach digital systems, steal sensitive data, and disrupt ordinary operations.

The situation can be compared to an arms race where cybersecurity professionals continuously struggle to secure these systems. At the same time, hackers, cybercriminals, and malicious actors operate intending to infiltrate the systems, exploiting vulnerabilities and gaining unauthorized access. This ongoing battle highlights the importance of transparency and explainability in cybersecurity.

These principles enable the defenders to gain a thorough insight into the tactics employed by their adversaries, empowering them to devise effective countermeasures.

Transparency in digital environments refers to being open and clear about events. When companies and organizations claim to be transparent, they show their dedication to protecting data and privacy. Transparency promotes trust and boosts the sense of security.

On the other hand, explainability means understanding the reasons behind any event or action. Whether it is a technical glitch, an error, or a cyberattack, knowing the cause may help us learn from mistakes and prevent their recurrence.

So, why is it important to be transparent and explainable in the cybersecurity domain? These concepts hold essential significance amidst the ongoing cyber warfare.


As an example, let’s say we find out that our house has a secret room nobody knows about, and it scares us because we do not see what happens there. Right? The same is true when we are on the Internet.

We need to know what is happening there to ensure our information stays secure.

The Threats and Limitations of Black-Box Security Solutions

The modern, diverse, and constantly evolving landscape of cyber threats brings significant challenges for individuals, organizations, and nations. Threats range from financially motivated hackers to state-sponsored actors and hacktivists, adding complexity.

A significant challenge is the scale and complexity of these threats. Large-scale data breaches, ransomware attacks, and phishing scams are now unfortunately common and devised with extraordinary sophistication.

The attack surface has expanded significantly due to the Internet of Things (IoT) and digitalization, creating numerous entry points for cyber threats and making it more challenging to protect digital assets. Contemporary, black-box security solutions need more transparency, which hinders the ability to understand how they make decisions and detect threats, complicating incident responses.

Additionally, the inherent lack of transparency in black-box approaches results in a high rate of false positives/negatives, making it difficult to prioritize threats. Adapting these systems to evolving threats is challenging because their internal workings remain hidden.

On the other hand, due to rapidly evolving cyber threats, having clear visibility and understanding of security systems is crucial. Despite its technological sophistication, Black-box security may encounter difficulties due to its lack of transparency. Effective cybersecurity requires recognizing these limitations and exploring alternative approaches focused on transparency.

The Significance of Explainable AI (XAI) in Cybersecurity

The significance of Explainable AI (XAI) in cybersecurity cannot be refuted. It is a substantial progress that prioritizes transparency and comprehensibility in the decision-making processes of artificial intelligence and machine learning systems.

In cybersecurity, XAI refers to AI-driven security solutions that identify threats and provide understandable explanations for their actions. This feature is most important as it allows cybersecurity professionals and organizations to understand the reasoning behind specific decisions or actions, ultimately strengthening trust and enabling effective response strategies.

Unlike traditional black-box mechanisms that lack transparency, XAI offers a transparent view of the inner workings of AI systems. While black-box systems make decisions without revealing their rationale, XAI allows us to trace the logic behind each decision, providing valuable insights into threat detection and response. This transparency is invaluable in the fast-paced world vulnerable to excessive digital threats. Understanding the “why” behind actions can be the determining factor between successful defense and susceptibility to attacks.

Why Does Transparency Matter for Secure Cyberspace?

Transparency is essential due to two key reasons. First, it promotes trust by proving how organizations handle cybersecurity. When they openly communicate their security measures and data protection, it persuades customers that their information is secure, enhancing confidence and continuing business relationships.

Second, transparency is aligned with compliance. Many sectors have strict data protection rules like GDPR and HIPAA. Transparent practices showcase security measures, ensuring compliance, avoiding legal issues, and enhancing an organization’s responsible reputation. The ever-changing cyber landscape makes it necessary to have a detailed understanding instead of surface-level threat information by profoundly looking into why security measures are activated and how they work.

5 Step Strategy to Implement Explainable Cyber Defense

  1. Evaluate cybersecurity needs, identify areas for improvement, and plan implementation.
  2. Choose appropriate XAI tools that align with security objectives.
  3. Prepare and preprocess relevant, high-quality data and train XAI models.
  4. Enhance collaboration between AI systems and cybersecurity professionals.
  5. Provide education and training on XAI concepts and tools, encourage effective communication, and integrate XAI insights into incident responses and decision-making, including ethical considerations.

Challenges in Adopting Explainable Defenses

Implementing explainable defences presents challenges, such as the complexity of integrating XAI into existing systems, limited resources, and the necessity for comprehensive staff training. Organizations should prioritize accurate planning and phased implementation to overcome these obstacles to ensure seamless integration.

Moreover, adequate resources should be allocated for data collection, model training, and education. Best practices involve emphasizing the ethical aspects of AI and seeking feedback from AI experts and cybersecurity professionals to improve XAI systems continually. By doing so, organizations can effectively exploit the power of explainable defenses while overcoming potential hurdles.

Real-World Examples of Organizations Employing XAI in Cyberspace

Multiple organizations have explored or implemented XAI in the domain of cybersecurity:

  1. Google: Google has integrated XAI into its Gmail platform to enhance email security and provide users with explanations regarding classifying certain emails as phishing threats or spam.
  2. JPMorgan Chase: JPMorgan Chase uses XAI to enhance fraud detection and decision-making in its cybersecurity initiatives.
  3. Darktrace: Darktrace, a cybersecurity company, has incorporated XAI principles into its AI-driven threat detection and response solutions, enabling users to understand the reasoning behind security alerts.

The Bottom Line

In an era of persistent cyber threats, adopting explainable defenses is a pivotal protection mechanism. As the battle between cybersecurity professionals and malicious actors intensifies, transparency and comprehensibility emerge as powerful allies.

By embracing XAI and fostering a culture of transparency, organizations can fortify their cyber fortresses, mitigate risks promptly, and safeguard digital assets.


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Assad Abbas

Dr. Assad Abbas completed Ph.D. from North Dakota State University (NDSU), USA. He is working as a Tenured Associate Professor at the Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad (CUI), Islamabad Campus, Pakistan. Dr. Abbas is affiliated with COMSATS since 2004. His research interests are mainly but not limited to Smart Health, Big Data Analytics, Recommendation Systems, Patent Analysis, and Social Network Analysis. His research has appeared in several prestigious journals, such as IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics, IEEE Transactions on Cloud Computing, IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, IEEE Systems Journal, IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics, IEEE…