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Network topology refers to the physical or logical layout of a network. It defines the way different nodes are placed and interconnected with each other. Alternately, network topology may describe how the data is transferred between these nodes.
There are two types of network topologies: physical and logical. Physical topology emphasizes the physical layout of the connected devices and nodes, while the logical topology focuses on the pattern of data transfer between network nodes.
The physical and logical network topologies of a network do not necessarily have to be identical. However, both physical and network topologies can be categorized into five basic models: