Fiat Currency (Fiat Money)

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What is Fiat Currency?

Fiat currency is defined as the currency issued by governments or central banks and is regulated and accepted as legal tender within a country or territory. It is used as a medium of exchange to buy goods and services. The central authority has the power to print, regulate, and manage fiat currency.

The term has its origin in the Latin word “fiat,” meaning “let it be done” or “it shall be.” The word “fiat” was used to refer to a government decree or order.

The U.S. dollar, the euro, the Japanese yen, and the British pound sterling are examples of fiat currencies.

Сryptocurrencies are often referenced in relation to fiat currencies – in terms of their value and the advantages they offer. To appreciate the significance and potential impact of cryptocurrencies, it is important to understand fiat currencies, which are the foundation of the traditional global monetary system.

Techopedia Explains

Fiat currency is a monetary unit that serves as a store of value, numerical account, and medium of exchange for a nation’s economy. Some countries with weak fiat currencies tend to use currencies from neighboring countries or the U.S. dollar in day-to-day transactions.

Historical Backing of Fiat Currencies: The Role of Gold and Precious Metals

Fiat currency does not have its own intrinsic value beyond being issued by a government. It does not have to be backed by a physical asset such as gold or silver – as it often has been in the past. The widespread acceptance relies on the collective trust and confidence people have in the issuing authority.

Fiat currencies were historically backed by gold or silver from the first use of coins. The English pound sterling, introduced around 800CE, was initially backed by a silver standard until the gold standard was widely adopted in the 1700s-1800s.

The U.S. dollar – now the world’s global reserve fiat currency – was backed by the gold standard from the 1870s until 1971, except for periods surrounding the Great Depression and the Second World War.

Gold and other precious metals carry intrinsic value because they are used in jewelry as well as in various manufacturing industries. But fiat currency is inconvertible and cannot be redeemed for a commodity.

As the size and scope of the international economy expanded over time, the volume of gold and silver produced from mining was not sufficient to keep pace.

Central Banks and Currency Stability

Fiat currencies provide an alternative that gives governments greater flexibility and control in the way they manage their currency and set monetary policy in response to economic fluctuations.

Most central banks around the world have a mandate to ensure their national currency remains stable and relatively strong, as a currency that rapidly declines in value can be economically damaging. As most fiat currencies are no longer backed by commodities, central banks can cause large variations in the money supply.

The risk is that loose monetary policy, in which a country increases the supply of currency printed, can result in hyperinflation.

Key Characteristics of Fiat Currency

Feature Explanation
Legal tender Fiat currency is accepted for settling debts and transactions within a country’s borders. Its legal status gives it widespread acceptance.
Centrally controlled Governments and central banks are responsible for monetary policy and supply.
No intrinsic worth


Unlike commodities, fiat money has no inherent worth. Its value depends on the trust people have in the issuing authority.
Stability and trust Fiat currencies are backed by the government’s economic and political stability. People use them because they trust in their purchasing power. Currencies issued by unstable governments tend to wildly fluctuate in value.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Fiat Money


  • Central banks have control over their economy and money supply;
  • Cost-efficient to produce;
  • Give governments flexibility in setting and adjusting monetary policy.


  • Not a fool-proof way to protect an economy;
  • Unlimited money supply creates a potential for a bubble;
  • Risk of losing value to inflation or hyperinflation.

Fiat Currency vs. Cryptocurrency

The advent of well-known cryptocurrencies, such as bitcoin (BTC), has introduced a significant shift in the way people perceive and use money. While fiat currency remains the dominant form of payment worldwide, cryptocurrencies have emerged as an alternative and, for some, a complement to traditional currencies.

The main difference is that fiat money is centralized, with governments and central banks controlling issuance and supply. Cryptocurrencies, on the other hand, are decentralized, relying on blockchain technology and a network of nodes to maintain the ledger. New crypto coins are created through mining or staking as new blocks are validated and added to the chain. New tokens can be issued by smart contract executions set by a crypto’s developers.

Cryptocurrencies are known for their high price volatility, with prices often fluctuating rapidly. Fiat currencies tend to be more stable, although instability in a country’s government or economy can cause them to fluctuate in value.

Like fiat currency, cryptocurrencies lack intrinsic value, but they are considered to be digital assets because of their limited supply, utility, and use cases. Bitcoin is often considered to be “digital gold,” acting as a store of value for investors looking to diversify their holdings away from fiat currencies and other traditional assets.

Both fiat money and cryptocurrencies are increasingly digital. With the rise of online banking and digital payment platforms, most of the world’s fiat currency exists in digital form, just like cryptocurrencies.

High-potential cryptocurrencies are increasingly being used for purposes such as online purchases, investments, and as a hedge against inflation. But fiat currency remains the primary medium of exchange for everyday transactions.

Fiat currencies are highly regulated by governments and central banks, while cryptocurrencies are not yet subject to consistent regulations.

The Bottom Line

Fiat currency is the basis for the traditional global financial system, referring to the money used in daily transactions and investments. Understanding the characteristics and functions of fiat money and cryptocurrency is essential for navigating the evolving financial world and making informed financial decisions.

As technology continues to advance, the relationship between these two forms of money will continue to shape the future of finance.


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Nicole Willing
Technology Journalist
Nicole Willing
Technology Journalist

Nicole is a professional journalist with 20 years of experience in writing and editing. Her expertise spans both the tech and financial industries. She has developed expertise in covering commodity, equity, and cryptocurrency markets, as well as the latest trends across the technology sector, from semiconductors to electric vehicles. She holds a degree in Journalism from City University, London. Having embraced the digital nomad lifestyle, she can usually be found on the beach brushing sand out of her keyboard in between snorkeling trips.