Artificial intelligence (AI) is experiencing tremendous growth in both research and industry, transforming various fields such as science, medicine, finance, and education. The advances are primarily due to the improved ability of AI to effectively learn bigger models using larger datasets.
While the development has enabled AI to uncover scientific discoveries, create new business opportunities, and boost industrial growth, unfortunately, it comes with an implication for the planet.
AI’s Negative Impact on the Planet
As AI demands a significant amount of computing power and energy to train larger models, it has a substantial impact on the environment, leading to increased carbon footprint and greenhouse gas emissions.
A report by the MIT Technology Review reveals that the carbon emissions generated during the training of a single AI model exceed those produced by an average American car throughout its entire lifespan. Google’s AlphaGo Zero, an AI that learns by playing Go against itself, produced 96 tons of carbon dioxide in just 40 days of training. That’s like the emissions from 1,000 hours of air travel or the annual carbon footprint of 23 American homes.
Facebook reported that the training of large AI models, such as Meena, can have a carbon footprint equivalent to driving a passenger vehicle for approximately 242,231 miles. A recent study by MIT reveals that the environmental impact of cloud computing has now surpassed that of the entire airline industry.
Cloud computing, which enables the storage and processing of vast amounts of data, contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, a single data center can use as much electricity as 50,000 homes.
Another study showed that training a single large-scale language model can emit up to 284,000 kg of CO2, which is approximately equivalent to the energy consumption of five cars over their lifetime. Moreover, it is estimated that carbon emissions due to AI will be increased by 300% by 2025.
All these findings emphasize the necessity to strike a balance between AI development and environmental responsibility. In response, sustainable AI is emerging as an important field to ensure that AI developments are energy efficient.
What Is Sustainable AI?
The term sustainability refers to the ability to meet present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It involves finding a balance between economic growth, environmental protection, and social well-being.
In other words, sustainability is about making choices and taking actions that ensure a better future for ourselves, the planet, and future generations. Hence, sustainable AI involves using artificial intelligence in a way that benefits society while minimizing harm to the planet for both present and future generations.
Here, it is also important to differentiate between AI for sustainability and sustainable AI.
|AI for sustainability||Deals with using AI to achieve sustainable development goals.|
|Sustainable AI||Focused on the sustainability of AI technology. Involves a set of principles and strategies to reduce the carbon footprint and energy consumption associated with AI-related developments.|
Implementing Sustainable AI Practices: Challenges and Solutions
To make AI sustainable, it is crucial to prioritize energy efficiency in all stages of its life cycle, including data storage, model training, and infrastructure deployment.
In this section, we address the main challenges in achieving sustainable AI and potential solutions to overcome them.
Prioritizing Data Quality
Over the past decade, there has been a remarkable rise in both the amount of data used to train AI systems and the size of AI models. As the size of data has grown, the demand for data ingestion bandwidth has significantly increased.
As a result, the data storage and ingestion pipeline have become major components of the infrastructure, consuming a substantial amount of power and resources compared to the deployment of the AI system.
One way we could address this rising need for data storage is to prioritize data quality over quantity during the data collection process. This primarily involves carefully choosing high-quality samples and refraining from unnecessary duplication of data samples.
By utilizing a smaller quantity of high-quality data, we can decrease storage needs and reduce energy consumption while still achieving excellent performance from AI.
Balancing Model Size and Efficiency
The continuous growth of data has led to a rapid increase in the size of models.
While larger models improve accuracy by utilizing the rich contextual information in the data, training them requires more powerful computational resources. For instance, the memory capacity of GPU-based accelerators, like NVIDIA V100 (2018) with 32GB and NVIDIA A100 (2021) with 80GB, has increased by less than double every two years.
One way to reduce the need for powerful computers is to create smaller models that perform just as well as larger ones. Some existing work in this direction includes methods such as model compression, knowledge distillation, and network pruning. By sharing and reusing trained models, we can also save energy and avoid redundant training.
To make this happen, however, we should support open-source frameworks and platforms that enable model sharing and encourage collaborative research in the AI community.
Developing Energy-Efficient Infrastructure
The rapid expansion of AI applications has led to a substantial increase in the capacity of AI training infrastructure in recent years. The growing demand for AI inference has also led industries to increase their infrastructure capacity.
This increasing utilization of AI is contributing to the expansion of carbon footprints.
To reduce this impact, it is crucial to create energy-efficient hardware specifically for AI tasks. This kind of hardware can greatly decrease power usage during training and inference processes. It involves optimizing processors, memory systems, and other components to achieve maximum performance per watt.
Moreover, the use of renewable energy sources like solar or wind power for data centers can help lower the environmental impact of AI computing. Additionally, by employing energy-efficient cooling systems and optimizing infrastructure, we can further decrease energy usage and carbon emissions.
Making Policies and Regulations
In order to enforce technological solutions, it is highly imperative to design and implement policies and regulations for the sustainable development of AI. This involves creating rules that promote sustainable AI practices.
In this regard, rewards can be offered for energy-efficient AI systems, supporting sustainable AI research, and setting goals to reduce carbon emissions. These actions can help in making AI developments more sustainable.
Raising Awareness and Educating
Awareness and education can play a key role in promoting sustainable AI practices.
It is important to inform people, including AI researchers, developers, and policymakers, about the environmental impact of AI and the need for sustainable AI.
We could launch education programs to teach AI professionals about energy-saving techniques. By increasing awareness and providing knowledge, we can enable individuals and organizations to develop sustainable AI practices.
AI advancements have positive impacts but also contribute to environmental concerns such as increased carbon footprint.
To address this, sustainable AI focuses on reducing energy consumption and emissions. This can be achieved through data quality prioritization, balancing model size, energy-efficient infrastructure development, policy implementation, and raising awareness through education.
By implementing these measures, AI can be employed in a more environmentally responsible manner, benefiting both society and the planet.