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The binary number system is a numbering system that represents numeric values using two unique digits (0 and 1). Mosting computing devices use binary numbering to represent electronic circuit voltage state, (i.e., on/off switch), which considers 0 voltage input as off and 1 input as on.
This is also known as the base-2 number system, or the binary numbering system.
Microcontrollers only use binary logic in computing. Compare this to the decimal numbering system, which is comprised of 10 unique digits (0-9). For example, a user input of 345 (in decimals) is 101011001 in binary form.