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Scala is a modern programming language that incorporates object-oriented and functional language procedures and features. It provides a general mechanism that aims to enhance productivity by reducing program code complexity and length.
Created in 2003 by Martin Odersky, Scala supports functional programming by considering functions as a program's main unit, as well as object-oriented programming (OOP).
ZK and Lift are examples of Web application frameworks that support Scala. Organizations like Twitter, the Guardian, UBS Investment Bank and The New York Times have reportedly switched (at least partly) to Scala from Java for back-end development.