Operational Technology (OT)

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What is Operational Technology?

Operational Technology, or OT, refers to the hardware and software systems that are used to control and monitor physical processes.


Essentially, OT is all about the devices and applications that directly influence the performance of industrial equipment, factories, plants, and other physical infrastructures. Unlike traditional IT systems that focus on data-centric computing, OT is designed to interact with the physical world in real time.

OT is the backbone of manufacturing plants, utility companies, transportation networks, and many other sectors that rely on physical operations.

By using OT, industries can automate processes, increase efficiency, reduce costs, and enhance safety. Yes, OT is about controlling machines, but it’s also about enabling smarter, more efficient operations that can adapt to changing demands and environments.

Information Technology vs. Operational Technology

While both OT and IT are extremely important to business operations, they serve different purposes. 

Information technology primarily deals with the processing and flow of data. It’s concerned with networks, servers, databases, and the software that helps businesses manage and use information. 

Operational Technology is focused on controlling physical devices and processes. It is about information and data, whereas OT is about actions and physical changes.

In recent years, the line between IT and OT has started to blur as industries seek to integrate data insights (IT) into physical operations (OT) for enhanced efficiency and innovation.

The Historical Development of Operational Technology

Operational Technology has come a long way from its early days in the industrial revolution to the sophisticated digital era of today. Initially, OT was all about mechanical systems and analog devices. 

Think of the steam engines and telegraph systems of the 18th and 19th centuries, where control over machines was mostly manual or involved simple mechanical contraptions. This era set the foundation for automation and control of physical processes.

As technology evolved through the 20th century, there was a significant shift from these purely mechanical systems to electronic and digital ones.

The introduction of electronic components like transistors and microprocessors revolutionized OT. This marked a move towards precision, reliability, and the capacity to handle increasingly complex tasks. Digital systems allowed for finer control over industrial processes and paved the way for larger-scale automation.

The real transformation in OT, however, began with its integration with computer technology. In the late 20th century, the advent of computer-based control systems, such as Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, marked a new era. 

These systems brought together the physical control of industrial processes with the analytical power of computing. This integration signified the beginning of what we now know as smart manufacturing and automation, where computers and software are major components of the operational environment, leading to today’s interconnected and intelligent industrial systems.

Key Components of Operational Technology

Operational Technology is a complex field that relies on a range of components to control and monitor industrial processes. Here’s a deeper look into these components.

3 Key Components of Operational Technology

Hardware Used in Operational Technology

The hardware in OT includes devices like sensors, actuators, and controllers.

  • Sensors: Detect environmental parameters like temperature, pressure, or motion.
  • Actuators: Perform physical actions based on commands, such as moving parts or opening valves.
  • Controllers: Devices like Programmable Logic Controllers process data from sensors and instruct actuators.

This hardware forms the physical backbone of OT, enabling real-time interaction and control of industrial processes.

Software Components

Software plays a role in controlling and monitoring operations. Essential software components are:

The software ensures that OT systems are not only automated but also manageable and efficient, allowing for human oversight and intervention when necessary.

Networks and Connectivity in Operational Technology

Connectivity is necessary in modern OT systems. Networks in OT enable communication between various hardware components and software systems. This can be through wired connections like Ethernet or wireless technologies like Wi-Fi and Bluetooth

The network ensures that data flows seamlessly from sensors to controllers and then to actuators, as well as to monitoring tools for human oversight. 

In recent years, the trend toward the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) has further emphasized the importance of connectivity in OT, allowing for more integrated, smart, and responsive systems.

Examples of Operational Technology in Different Industries


In manufacturing, OT is central to automating production lines. It controls machinery like conveyor belts, robotic arms, and CNC machines, ensuring precision and efficiency in production processes. 

Sensors monitor conditions and performance, while PLCs and other controllers manage the operations, from assembly to packaging. This integration of OT speeds up production, but it also improves quality control and reduces human error.

Energy and Utilities

For the energy and utilities sector, OT is used in the managing and distributing of resources like electricity, gas, and water. It controls systems in power plants, water treatment facilities, and electrical grids. 

OT systems monitor resource levels, manage distribution networks, and ensure that environmental and safety standards are met. They help in responding to demand fluctuations and maintaining continuous, reliable service.


In transportation, OT is used for traffic control, signaling systems, and monitoring the health of infrastructure like bridges and roads. It’s essential in managing public transit systems, from scheduling to real-time tracking of vehicles. 

OT technologies help in optimizing routes, reducing congestion, and enhancing passenger safety. They’re also important for emerging technologies like autonomous vehicles and smart city initiatives.


OT in healthcare involves the use of technology in patient care and hospital management. This includes medical devices like MRI machines, patient monitoring systems, and robotic surgical equipment. These technologies improve diagnostic accuracy, patient monitoring, and treatment efficiency. 

OT is also used in managing hospital logistics, like controlling environmental systems and ensuring the availability of critical equipment.

Operational Technology Security Concerns

The increasing reliance on Operational Technology (OT) brings with it specific security challenges and concerns. As OT becomes more connected, the risks associated with cyber threats also rise.

OT systems, unlike traditional IT environments, interact directly with the physical world, making their security critical. A key challenge is that many OT systems were designed before cyber threats were a significant concern, thus lacking built-in security features. 

Additionally, the integration of IT and OT systems exposes OT to vulnerabilities common in IT, like malware and hacking. The potential impact of a security breach in OT is not just data loss, but can extend to physical damage and safety risks.

Several high-profile incidents highlight the importance of OT security. For instance, the Stuxnet worm, discovered in 2010, targeted nuclear facilities and caused physical damage to centrifuges by manipulating control systems. 

Another example is the 2015 attack on Ukraine’s power grid, where hackers disrupted power supply to thousands of homes. These incidents show the real-world consequences of OT security breaches, demonstrating the need for robust security measures.

Securing OT systems involves a multi-layered approach:

  1. Regularly Updating and Patching: Keeping all software and firmware up to date to protect against known vulnerabilities.
  2. Segmentation of Networks: Separating OT networks from IT networks to limit the spread of potential cyber threats.
  3. Access Control: Implementing strict access control measures to restrict who can interact with the OT systems.
  4. Continuous Monitoring: Actively monitoring networks and systems for unusual activities or potential threats.
  5. Employee Training: Ensuring that all personnel are trained in cybersecurity best practices relevant to OT.

By implementing these practices, organizations can significantly enhance the security of their OT systems, protecting them against both current and emerging cyber threats.

Future Trends and Innovations in Operational Technology

Operational Technology is rapidly evolving, integrating cutting-edge technologies to enhance industrial efficiency and intelligence.

A key trend is the growing influence of the Internet of Things (IoT), which connects physical devices to the Internet for advanced data exchange and analysis. This integration leads to smarter, more interconnected industrial environments, allowing for remote monitoring and enhanced process optimization.

Further driving this evolution are advancements in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML). These technologies enable OT systems to analyze vast data sets, identify patterns, and predict outcomes. This capability is particularly transformative in predictive maintenance, where AI forecasts equipment failures, reducing downtime. 

Also, smart automation, integrating robotics and AI, is revolutionizing task execution, leading to higher productivity and improved safety. 

Together, these innovations are steering OT towards a future of intelligent, self-regulating systems, fundamentally transforming industrial operations.

The Bottom Line

Operational Technology is central to modern industry, bridging physical machinery with digital control for enhanced efficiency and safety. Its widespread application across sectors like manufacturing and healthcare underscores its importance in automating and optimizing industrial processes.

Looking ahead, OT’s integration with advanced technologies like IoT and AI heralds a future of smarter, autonomous systems. This evolution is set to further revolutionize industrial operations, making them more efficient, adaptive, and sustainable.


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Marshall Gunnell
IT & Cybersecurity Expert
Marshall Gunnell
IT & Cybersecurity Expert

Marshall, a Mississippi native, is a dedicated expert in IT and cybersecurity with over a decade of experience. Along Techopedia, his bylines can be found on Business Insider, PCWorld, VGKAMI, How-To Geek, and Zapier. His articles have reached a massive readership of over 100 million people. Marshall previously served as the Chief Marketing Officer (CMO) and technical staff writer at StorageReview, providing comprehensive news coverage and detailed product reviews on storage arrays, hard drives, SSDs, and more. He also developed sales strategies based on regional and global market research to identify and create new project initiatives.  Currently, Marshall resides in…