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What is CALMS?

CALMS stands for Culture, Automation, Lean, Measurement, and Sharing. It is a framework widely recognized in the DevOps community for guiding organizations on their journey to improve software delivery and operations.


By integrating the principles of CALMS, companies look to create environments where continuous improvement, efficiency, and collaboration are not just encouraged but ingrained in the way teams work.

The origins of the CALMS acronym trace back to the early discussions around DevOps, a set of practices aimed at unifying software development (Dev) and software operation (Ops).

Techopedia Explains CALMS Meaning


The acronym CALMS was formulated to encapsulate the key elements that businesses need to address to successfully implement DevOps methodologies.

Over time, the definition of CALMS has evolved into a comprehensive guide for organizational transformation, emphasizing not just technical processes but also cultural shifts.

The Five Pillars of CALMS

The CALMS framework is a foundational guide for implementing DevOps practices, focusing on Culture, Automation, Lean, Measurement, and Sharing. Each pillar plays a vital role in building a cohesive strategy that enhances the efficiency and effectiveness of IT operations and software development.


Culture is the cornerstone of the CALMS framework, emphasizing the need for a collaborative environment that breaks down traditional silos between development and operations teams.

In the context of DevOps, culture refers to fostering an atmosphere where open communication, shared responsibility, and learning from failures are valued. This cultural shift is necessary for facilitating organizational change, encouraging collaboration, and ensuring that all members are aligned toward common goals.

A strong DevOps culture leads to more innovative solutions, faster problem resolution, and a more motivated workforce.


Automation focuses on increasing efficiency and reliability in the software development and deployment process by minimizing manual interventions. It involves using tools and practices to automate repetitive tasks such as code integration, testing, deployment, and infrastructure provisioning.

Automation in DevOps speeds up processes but also reduces the likelihood of errors, ensuring that software can be delivered with greater speed and consistency.

Popular tools like Jenkins, Ansible, and Docker are often used to facilitate automation within DevOps practices.


Lean methodology, adapted from manufacturing, is applied in IT operations to maximize value to the customer while minimizing waste. It involves identifying and eliminating non-value-added activities, streamlining processes, and implementing continuous improvement practices.

In the context of DevOps, applying lean principles helps accelerate the delivery of software, improving product quality, and enhancing operational efficiency.

The benefits of adopting lean practices include reduced cycle times, lower costs, and improved customer satisfaction.


Measurement is about using metrics and Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) to objectively assess the performance of DevOps practices. It involves tracking various aspects of software development and delivery processes to identify areas for improvement, make informed decisions, and measure the impact of changes.

Effective measurement practices include monitoring deployment frequency, change lead time, failure rates, and recovery times. By focusing on data-driven insights, organizations can continuously refine their DevOps processes and drive towards higher efficiency and effectiveness.


The sharing pillar emphasizes the importance of disseminating knowledge, experiences, and practices across the organization. Encouraging sharing helps in building a culture of transparency, innovation, and continuous learning.

It involves creating platforms and opportunities for team members to share insights, lessons learned, and best practices with one another.

Tools like wikis, internal blogs, and regular meetups, as well as strategies such as pair programming and cross-functional training, can facilitate effective sharing.

Through sharing, teams can overcome challenges more efficiently and foster a sense of community and shared purpose.

How Does CALMS Work?

Implementing the CALMS framework within a DevOps environment involves a well-thought-out approach that touches on every aspect of software development and IT operations.

By focusing on the five pillars – Culture, Automation, Lean, Measurement, and Sharing – organizations can foster a collaborative environment conducive to continuous improvement and operational efficiency.

Here’s how each pillar is implemented, along with examples of tools and practices, and insights into successful organizational transformations.

Pillar Implementation in DevOps Environment Tools and Practices Example
  • Encourage collaboration and open communication.
  • Conduct cross-functional meetings and training.
  • Celebrate successes and learn from failures.
  • Regular cross-functional meetings.
  • Workshops and training sessions.
Spotify’s “Guilds” and “Squads” model promotes autonomy and collaboration, enabling effective knowledge sharing and teamwork.
  • Streamline software delivery with CI/CD pipelines.
  • Manage infrastructure through code.
Netflix uses Spinnaker for CD and Terraform for infrastructure management, enhancing deployment reliability and speed.
  • Eliminate waste and optimize efficiency.
  • Use Kanban boards and value stream mapping.
Toyota adopted lean principles for IT, improving software delivery speed and operational efficiency.
  • Track performance metrics.
  • Review KPIs regularly to guide improvements.
  • Prometheus, Grafana for monitoring.
  • DORA metrics.
Google uses DORA metrics to measure DevOps effectiveness, leading to data-driven improvements.
  • Foster a culture of transparency and innovation through knowledge sharing.
  • Organize tech talks, workshops, and maintain documentation wikis.
  • Internal tech talks and workshops.
  • Documentation repositories.
GitHub promotes sharing with internal documentation and open source contributions, creating a transparent and collaborative culture.

CALMS Case Study

The transformation of the U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) is a compelling case study that showcases the effective implementation of the CALMS framework to drive significant improvements in IT operations and software development processes.


The General Services Administration is an independent agency of the U.S. government, established to help manage and support the basic functioning of federal agencies.

Before adopting the CALMS framework, the GSA faced numerous challenges typical of large government organizations, including slow deployment times, siloed departments, inefficient processes, and a culture resistant to change.


The GSA aimed to transform its IT operations to improve efficiency, agility, and responsiveness to the needs of the public and other government agencies.

Key objectives included reducing deployment times, fostering a culture of collaboration and innovation, and improving the reliability and security of digital services.


  • Culture: The GSA focused on creating a culture of openness and collaboration by encouraging cross-functional teams to work together and share their successes and failures. Leadership played a crucial role in driving this cultural shift, promoting values of trust, transparency, and continuous learning.
  • Automation: To streamline processes and reduce deployment times, the GSA adopted various automation tools for continuous integration and deployment (CI/CD), as well as for infrastructure management. This allowed for more frequent and reliable deployments, with reduced manual effort and lower risk of errors.
  • Lean: Applying lean principles, the GSA worked on optimizing its processes by identifying and eliminating waste. This involved mapping out workflows, removing unnecessary steps, and focusing on value-added activities. The lean approach helped in speeding up the delivery of services and reducing costs.
  • Measurement: The GSA implemented a robust system of metrics and KPIs to measure the effectiveness of its processes and the impact of changes. This data-driven approach enabled the agency to make informed decisions, focus on areas needing improvement, and demonstrate the value of its DevOps initiatives.
  • Sharing: Knowledge sharing was encouraged through various initiatives, including internal tech talks, workshops, and the creation of shared repositories for documentation and best practices. This helped in building a collective knowledge base and fostering a culture of continuous improvement and innovation.


The adoption of the CALMS framework led to remarkable outcomes for the GSA, including:

  • Reduction in deployment times from months to days, significantly increasing the pace of innovation and responsiveness to changes.
  • Enhanced collaboration and communication across teams, breaking down silos and improving overall efficiency.
  • Increased reliability and security of digital services, benefiting both the public and other government agencies.

How CALMS Enables DevOps Success

The CALMS framework achieves faster deployment, improved reliability, and higher quality of software in DevOps. Here’s how CALMS brings these outcomes and the significance of its interdependent pillars in achieving these goals.

How CALMS Enables DevOps Success

Faster Deployment

  • Automation is key to accelerating the deployment process. By automating tasks such as code integration, testing, and deployment, CALMS helps eliminate manual bottlenecks, reducing the time required to move from development to production.
  • Lean principles further streamline processes, ensuring that only value-adding tasks are focused on, which naturally speeds up the development cycle.

Improved Reliability

  • Measurement plays an important role in enhancing reliability. By continuously monitoring performance and tracking key metrics, teams can proactively identify and address issues before they impact users, ensuring systems are more stable and reliable.
  • Culture encourages a mindset of shared responsibility for the end product’s reliability, fostering practices like proactive monitoring and incident response as a part of the daily workflow.

Higher Quality of Software

  • Sharing of knowledge and best practices across the organization leads to improved software quality. When teams share insights about code quality, testing strategies, and effective problem-solving, the collective expertise contributes to building better software.
  • Automation ensures that tests are run consistently and thoroughly, catching bugs early in the development cycle, which directly contributes to the software’s overall quality.

Interdependence of CALMS Pillars

The pillars of CALMS are deeply interconnected, each playing a role that supports and enhances the others:

  • Culture of collaboration and openness is essential for the effective sharing of knowledge and best practices.
  • Automation of processes is made more effective by lean practices that identify the most valuable areas to automate.
  • Measurement of outcomes relies on a culture that values data-driven decisions, and the insights gained from measurement inform continuous improvements across all areas.

Impact on Team Dynamics, Collaboration, and Organizational Culture

  • The culture pillar directly impacts team dynamics by promoting an environment where collaboration is valued over individual achievement. This fosters stronger team bonds and a sense of shared purpose.
  • Sharing creates a foundation for collaboration, as teams become more willing to seek out and offer help, driving innovation and problem-solving.
  • Implementing CALMS creates a shift in organizational culture towards one that is more agile, resilient, and adaptive. Teams are encouraged to experiment, learn from failures, and continuously improve, leading to a dynamic and innovative workplace.

Pros and Cons of CALMS

Adopting the CALMS framework can impact an organization’s approach to DevOps, bringing about a range of benefits and facing some challenges. Understanding these can help organizations navigate their DevOps journey more effectively.

CALMS Framework Aspect Pros Cons
Operational Efficiency
  • Streamlines processes, reducing manual effort
  • Enables faster deployments and efficient resource use
  • Complexity of automation tools requires expertise
  • Time-consuming to implement and maintain
Product Quality
  • Higher standards through automated testing and continuous feedback
  • Focus on quality improvement
Identifying effective metrics for quality can be challenging
Employee Satisfaction
  • Collaborative culture increases job satisfaction
  • Promotes engagement and innovation
Resistance to cultural change can slow the adoption process
Collaboration and Communication Existing silos and communication barriers may initially hinder progress
Process Optimization
  • Lean practices identify and eliminate inefficiencies
  • Focuses on value-adding activities
Requires ongoing effort to identify and address waste
Adaptability and Resilience
  • Encourages a responsive approach to change
  • Builds a culture of continuous improvement
Adapting to new processes and tools can be met with skepticism
Knowledge Sharing
  • Promotes organizational learning and innovation
  • Facilitates problem-solving and best practices
Establishing effective platforms and practices for sharing can take time

The Bottom Line

The CALMS framework, central to DevOps, streamlines software development and operations through its pillars: Culture, Automation, Lean, Measurement, and Sharing. It enhances collaboration, accelerates delivery, and ensures quality, adapting to organizational needs and industry trends for continuous improvement.


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Marshall Gunnell
IT & Cybersecurity Expert
Marshall Gunnell
IT & Cybersecurity Expert

Marshall, a Mississippi native, is a dedicated expert in IT and cybersecurity with over a decade of experience. Along Techopedia, his bylines can be found on Business Insider, PCWorld, VGKAMI, How-To Geek, and Zapier. His articles have reached a massive readership of over 100 million people. Marshall previously served as the Chief Marketing Officer (CMO) and technical staff writer at StorageReview, providing comprehensive news coverage and detailed product reviews on storage arrays, hard drives, SSDs, and more. He also developed sales strategies based on regional and global market research to identify and create new project initiatives.  Currently, Marshall resides in…